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Calculating Pipeline Forces and Pressures

MIddle

1) Determine the inside diameter of the pipeline in inches.
2) Determine the maximum back pressure.
3) Calculate the pipe area in square inches. (Pipe area =p r2)
4) Calculate the force the plug must withstand.
(pounds of force = PSI X pepe area)

* Calculating pounds of force aids in building blocking systems. It also illustrates the tremendous force generated by a sewer air test.
 

Formula: pr2 X PSI = POUNDS OF FORCE
Example: 36" diameter pipe

Radius = 18"
p = 3.14
PSI = 5
18" x 18" X 3.14 x 5 PSI = 5087 POUNDS OF FORCE
 


Special Notes:
• Pressures being exerted on a plug—regardless of the medium (liquid, water, or air)—are the same. Ten (10) PSI of water is the same as ten (10) PSI of air. However, air is a compressible media. Therefore when a plug dislodges under air back-pressure, it is much more dangerous than water pressure as the air will expand to its original atmospheric volume. Use extreme caution when conducting air tests!• Air back-pressure ratings reflect absolute back-pressure capabilities. Common engineering standards have been used to convert head pressure to PSI. It is imperative to block pipe plugs when performing air pressure tests and to ensure no one is in the danger zone when a plug is in use. Please see the Cherne Safety and Instruction Manual for complete details  General Safety and Usage Instructions:

1) Death, bodily injury, and/or property damage may result if plug fails for any reason.
2) Read and understand safety instruction sheet before using plug.
3) Must wear safety glasses and a hard hat.
4) Do not enter danger zone when plug is in use.
5) Measure pipe diameter before selecting plug.
6) Inspect plug for damage before and after use.
7) Never use a plug in a pipe size different from recommended usage range.
8) Always attach an inflation hose so plug can be inflated and deflated from outside the danger zone
 9) Never remove the inflation hose until all back pressure is released and the plug is deflated.
10) Must inflate plug to the pressure shown on plug.
11) Always use properly-calibrated pressure gauges.
12) Do not exceed recommended maximum allowable back pressure (refer to safety instruction sheet).
13) Always release back pressure from the pipe first, before deflating plug.
14) Check pneumatic plug inflation pressure at least every four hours.

Calculating Head Pressure/Feet of Head Measure the distance of the pipe and multiply it by the slope of grade   headpressure_1 Attach a hose to a Muni-Ball by-pass, raise the hose until flow stops then measure the height of the water in the hose.   headpressure_2 Measure the dista
headpressure_3








Always block plugs when conducting air tests!

 
HowtoBlockPlugs

How to calculate pipeline forces and pressures.

1) Determine the inside diameter of the pipeline in inches.
2) Determine the maximum backpressure.
3) Calculate the pipe area in square inches.
4) Calculate the force the plug must withstand.

Example with 36” pipe: 18” x 18” x 3.14 x 5 psi = 5087 POUNDS OF FORCE!

Calculating pounds of force aid in building plug blocking systems. It also illustrates the tremendous force generated by a sewer air test.

SPECIAL NOTE:

Pressures being exerted on a plug, regardless of the medium (liquid, water or air) are the same. Ten (10) PSI water is the same as ten (10) PSI air. However,
AIR IS A COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA. Therefore extreme caution should be observed when air testing.

Air back-pressure ratings reflect absolute back-pressure capabilities. Common engineering standards have been used to convert head pressure to PSI.
It is imperative to block pipe plugswhen performing air-pressure tests and to ensure no one is in the zone of danger when a plug is in use. (Please see our Safety and Instruction Manual for complete details.)


Types of Plumbing Tests

Water Test

The plumbing system is plugged at all openings except one and water is introduced into the system.
Based on the building, the water is measured in a stack test or a pressurized PSIG test. If the test fails, water can be seen leaking out of pipe joints.

Air Test

The plumbing system is plugged at all openings except one. Air is introduced through the opening, pressurizing the system - normally to 5 PSIG.
If leaks are present a decrease in system (gauge) pressure occurs.

Manometer

or U-Tube, verifies trap tightness in a new plumbing system. The system is filled and manometer tube inserted into a fixture.
A significant decrease in pressure as measured on the manometer scale indicates a leak in the system.

Scent Test

The plumbing system is plugged at all openings except one. Drops of Liquid scent are left in the opening and the opening is plugged. Leaks are detected via the smell.